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Pavlodar Citizens in the Great Patriotic War

The war began in  Pavlodar on June 22, 1941 at 3pm.

In the morning of that day Pavlodar lived his usual measured life. Schoolchildren crowd went to the cinema "Drummer" on matinee movie "If tomorrow the war." At the gate of the market, near the kerosene shop, people queued with cans. Kerosene lamps are the most reliable means of illumination, as electricity is often disconnected, stoves, and kerosene were indispensable for cooking. At the city stadium, opposite the normal school was a football match between the city and the Omsk team "Dynamo". It seemed that nothing could disturb the peace during this Sunday.

On June 22, 1941 at 3 pm  the All-Union Radio   transmitted  the Under the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, Comrade  Molotov’s  announcement about the  beginning of the war and the mobilization of the entire Soviet people.

"... Without a declaration of the fact of any claim to the Soviet Union without a declaration of war, German troops attacked the country, attacked the border in many places and bombarded the city of Zhitomir, Kiev, Sevastopol, Kaunas ..."

The treacherous attack of the enemy caused a strong patriotic enthusiasm of the Soviet people. In all 448 villages, towns and villages areas as well as throughout the country, one had seen massive demonstrations condemned the fascist aggressors and call to give all the power to defend the homeland. Immediately after the meeting, many participants addressed to the draft board and party committees to send them to the army. During the first month of the war there were received 538 such applications.

According to Hitler's plan "Barbarossa" provided "by fleeting military operation to defeat the Soviet Union." But blitzkrieg did not work. Here and there  were pockets of fierce resistance.

Brest was captured by the Germans on the move, but the Brest Fortress continued to resist for nearly a month, and went down in history as an example of heroism and resistance fighters of the Red Army. Among those who defended Brest  was our countryman Zhumatov Gabbas Zhumatovich who  distinguished courage and heroism. Gabbas Zhumatov fought on the first day of the war, defending the southern town of Brest Fortress. Artillery regiment of the 6th Infantry Division, where he served in the first battle destroyed 18 enemy tanks and infantry battalions. But the enemy had introduced more and more new parts. Exhausted by a long and hard struggle, hunger and thirst, gunners fought off one attack after another. When run out of ammunition and guns were put out of action, some of the soldiers went into the dungeons and Gabbas Zhumatov and the survivors of the division retreated into the forest. Making his way through areas occupied by the enemy, they joined the Red Army units near the city of Gomel. Gabbas Zhumatov fought on the outskirts of Moscow in Mozhaysky direction.  He was twice wounded and bruised and  ended the war in the capital of Austria - Vienna. Gabbas Zhumatov was awarded 38 awards, including "Golden bouquet."

Under the Ukrainian city of Rovno scored  Kuzma Alexandrovich Semenchenko from Pavlodar. He fought in the army in the First World War, in 1919 at the age of 23 years went to serve in the Red Army, participated in the Civil War. Great Patriotic War Kuzma Semenchenko met, being, Major General, commander of the 19th Armored Division.

On June 24, the third day of the war, his division entered the meeting engagement with a large group of German tanks moving along the highway Vladimir-Volyn. The Germans had a huge advantage in forces. But General K.Semenchenko boldly rushed to meet them at the armored car, dragging his tank. As a result of this battle the enemy lost 16 tanks, and its progress was delayed.

Kuzma Alexandrovich Semenchenko, the first of the Kazakhs was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on 22 July 1941. 

                   Gabbas Zhumatov  Kuzma Semenchenko

 

Near Moscow fought bravely ,born in the village of Lebyazhye area, Takyr legendary Colonel Guard Abylkhair Baymuldin - Commissioner  of 51 famous cavalry regiment Cavalry Corps General Dovator. The regiment was ordered  to seize enemy strongpoint in the village Kuzyaev, not far from Volokolamsk. Regimental commander with two squads stroke in the rear of the enemy. Other forces regiment A.Baymuldin surrounded the village and after a four-hour battle took it, capturing 60 prisoners and rich booty.

Head of the political division wrote: "A.Baymuldin  under Volokolamsk four times personally led his regiment in the attack ... only after being seriously wounded ... was evacuated to the hospital."

Dashing horseman, a man of rare courage and great courage , he was loved in the cavalry. His horsemen appeared in the most unexpected places, penetrated into the enemy rear, destroy his communications and rear services, destroyed manpower. A.Baymuldin fluently spoke   four languages, was a mentor of Manshuk Mammedova. A.Baymuldin  was killed in battle near the town of Nevel, as deputy division commander. In the history of the last war, he came "as a master of lightning cavalry."

It should be noted that the failure of Hitler's plan for the environment and the capture of Moscow was the first major defeat of fascist armies in World War II. It was the first major defeat of Hitler's armies conquered most of Europe and is still considered invincible.

By the beginning of 1942 the Red Army offensive near Moscow developed into a general Soviet offensive on all fronts. Fascist fighters, getting captured, claimed that they did not beat the Soviet soldiers and "General Winter" ("General Winter"). Indeed, among the German soldiers had a lot of frostbite. Escaping from the cold, the Nazis wove straw similarity huge shoes, which put on boots, any warm clothes, which they were able to get, including women's shawl ... But the main reason to start a "losing streak" for the Nazis was not a Russian winter, but in the that the Red Army gained combat experience, learned how to beat a strong and dangerous enemy. With the approach of spring the Red Army offensive slowed. Soviet soldiers affected fatigue after long fights. 

 

Abilhair Baimuldin

 

In the Battle of Stalingrad, which lasted without pause and sagging voltage six and a half months and strongly involved in its orbit huge mass of troops were  involved five divisions and a lot of Kazakh people.

At Stalingrad and in the city valiantly fought the Hero of the Soviet Union ,Kudaibergen Suraganov,  the full  Officer of the Order of Glory Sapar Rubaev.

Also in Stalingrad was marked the future Hero of the Soviet Union, Maxim Ivanovich Milevsky( from the village Uspenka) - commander of a separate 51st battalion. He and his engineers all the days of the defense of Stalingrad night mined the cutting edge, the likely direction of approach of the enemy, the enemy neutralized mines, minefields arranged passages for tanks and infantry. It was hard price to perform these works. Many were killed, maimed. But mines laid their hands, carried to the grave of soldiers and officers, destroying enemy tanks and self-propelled guns.

Heavy defeat of Hitler's army at Stalingrad, caused a deep depression in Nazi Germany, where in this regard has been declared a 3-days mourning. At the same time the victory at Stalingrad was a powerful incentive for the Red Army. Already in the beginning of January 1943 there began a general offensive of the Soviet troops in the entire southern sector of the Soviet-German front.

  

Kudaibergen Suraganov Sapar Rubaev Maksim Milevskyi

Orlovsk- Battle of Kursk finally identified a radical change in the course of the Second World War, the beginning of which was the victory at Stalingrad. Immediately after the defeat of Nazi troops on the Kursk, the Red Army moved into the overall strategic offensive on the front of the Great Bow to the Black Sea. Retreating under the blows of the Red Army, the Nazis had high hopes for the defenses, which was built on the borders of the rivers Dnieper and Dairy, and named "East shaft".

In Autumn, 1943 was rich in outstanding events on the Soviet-German front. But the most impressive of them were crossing of the Dnieper and the liberation of Kiev.

Soviet troops began to force the Dnieper on the front of almost seven hundred kilometers.

Heroism in crossing the Dnieper scored our countryman - gun commander  Serikbai Mutkenov from  Aktogay area. The Germans made a desperate attempt to push the brave soldiers into the river from the bridgehead. By exploding shells and bombs all around moaning and shuddering. One after another there  fell soldiers ... Another attack of tanks. One, who was near the  guns was Mutkenov. Roll it out on the mound, aimed fire he shot medium tank. ... In this battle, Sergeant killed forty soldiers and officers of the enemy, the battalion provided the opportunity to perform a task. But a splinter from an enemy shell broke his life. For the immortal feat ,Serikbai Mutkenov  was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

At the end of September 1943  the parts of  7th Guards Cavalry Corps, - where he served as a gunner Fighter antitank battalion Guard Petty Officer, Michael Maksimovich  Kataev (born Kachiry area, before the war, worked as an accountant), came to the Dnieper. On the night of 26 to 27 September 1943 M. Kataev under the  heavy enemy fire, erected  the raft  crossing to the west bank of the Dnieper. In the middle of the river raft was destroyed, but the foreman was not taken aback and in full combat gear into the water. First reaching the shore, riding entered into an unequal of  the enemy than his part made it possible to cross the Dnieper. On January 15, 1944 M. Kataev was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

 

Serikbai Mutkenov Mihail Kataev

The war has stirred up the whole country. One after another, were followed  conscriptions. Every month, more adult population went to the front. The situation demanded that summoned were better prepared for military service.

On September 17, 1941 the State Defense Committee adopted a resolution "On universal military training of citizens SSR". According to it the second half of September, in the beginning of the systematic military training of men aged from 16 to 50 years in courses and training centers created by the military. Sessions were made by wounded or maimed in war officers - veterans. They held drill, studied the effects of a single combat soldier and as a part of unit took possession of a rifle, light and heavy machine guns, mortars, hand grenades and other types of military weapons. Special courses taught girls to professions of telephone operators,  radio operators and other specialties. In hospitals there were prepared frontline nurses and medical corps.

During the war in the region about a hundred thousand men and women were trained in military affairs and military specialties.  War, like a giant hammer demanded an ever increasing scale, not only human resources, but also weapons, military equipment and ammunition. Huge army needed clothes, shoes and food. Ensure all were those who stayed at home and worked in factories, fields and farms.

During 4 years of war Pavlodar gave the state about 202 million rubles in the form of lump-sum contributions to the creation of military equipment, subscription to government (military) loans and the purchase of lottery tickets.

For the construction of tank columns "collective farmer Kazakhstan", "Pavlodar farmer" squadron "Soviet Kazakhstan" fundraiser held by the region's population.

The outcome of the fight against Nazi Germany  was not  only on the battlefield. Soviet armed forces were victorious, based on the unanimous support of the entire Soviet people.

Pavlodar region was considered a deep rear and by geographical location is in a remote but accessible area. During the war the Pavlodar region by all means, helped the front. Life of the region was subject to harsh wartime slogan: "Everything for the front, everything for victory!".

In the assembly points people carried neat personal belongings, often refused themselves in the most necessary things. On the anniversary of the Red Army in 1942 soldiers received   from people of Pavlodar 1,264 parcels weighing about 17,000 pounds. Not all gathered things were possible to send  by mail. Local authorities   allocated  the post office to help with  transport and people.

In general, during the war to the front  were sent  thousands of parcels - gifts from the public had been collected and sent to the front 10360 pairs of boots, coats -4190, 10709 caps with fur, 1639 fur vest, tens of thousands of pairs of fur mittens, cotton Sweatshirts and trousers, and other things. In the words of Marshal GK Zhukov "All this, too, was a weapon."

Since the beginning of the war in the collective farms, state farms and MTS  the whole brunt of the work fell on the shoulders of women, adolescents and the elderly. Women mastered male profession, took husbands, sons and brothers places, who went to the front. Each winter of the war in short  courses  thousands of women had learned to combine and tractor. In the second year of the war every second tractor and combine was driven by a woman.

School ended  before spring planting, and students alongside adults worked from dawn to dusk, from the first furrow at sowing to collect the last spikelet. They worked with the then prevalent motto: "Work for himself and for those who went to the front." Over fulfillment job was taken for granted phenomenon.

In the new situation, were  got caught and  the spread, especially in crop production, team leader form of labor organization. They were then called "high units of labor." The first link emerged in 1942 in  the farm "Otozek" Uspensky district on the initiative of the accountant of Anna Datskova. The link mainly consisted of 5 - 6 people. Link teacher Munira Satybaldina  in the farm "Kyzylkogam" was organized in April 1943, the following year on the farm already had three managers, and from then there were 388. By the end of the war the number of units reached seven hundred.

During the harvest unfolded a real struggle with losses. It was believed that if every square meter of leave only one spikelet, then over the whole area lost about 500 thousand tons of grain. Children and the elderly people collected  them, as a rule, with all the harvested area.

People exchanged bread, animal products in the so-called "Bread Foundation of the Red Army", which arose in 1942. By January 10, 1942, i.e., a few days after the announcement of its creation, from their own homesteads and personal inventories people  donated  440 quintals of meat, 24,425 quintals of milk, 580 quintals of grain, 325 quintals of potatoes and many other products. There were two million rubles of money and bonds at 6 million rubles.

Many labor groups listed in the defense fund part of their monthly earnings (from two to ten). To earn some money for the war efforts, had been carried out voluntary work on Saturdays and voluntary Sundays.

The collected products went to the front and liberated from occupation areas. After breaking the enemy encirclement ring, train (18 cars) products and gifts fighters were taken to Leningrad.

In the pre-war Pavlodar, with a population of 38.8 thousand people, ship repair industry was represented by  brewing and fish plants, meat enterprises of local industry and the fishing cooperative. In the region functioned trust "Pavlodarsol" with Tavolzhanskim and Koryakovsky  saltmaking, Maykainsky gold mining plant with two mines, and Dzhamantuzsky Ekibastuz coal mines.

Exported from the workshop equipment Tula and mechanical plant "October" in Krasnodar for a short time in Pavlodar there were created factory "October" and repair-mechanical plant, which began to produce the necessary spare parts. In  Pavlodar there had been organized the production of fabrics, matches, ash and paper.

On the basis of the equipment exported from Tula there was organized the garment factory in Pavlodar, which began sewing for the army overcoats, suits of cotton and linen.

At the beginning of 1942 in Pavlodar region were arrived about 15,000 evacuees ,three thousand people from them were placed in the city. Among the arrivals - Leningrad, Muscovites, but most of the residents were in  the front line. To Pavlodar were evacuated: aviation school of Tambov, Infantry School from Berdichev, two military hospitals (2448, 8604). The Memorable day for the residents of Pavlodar was November 9, 1941. The first echelon of the wounded  people was arrived in the city that day. For evacuation hospital of 2448  number were prepared   best buildings of the city occupied before by  Teachers College and high school № 8. At the time of the war Milk college was transferred to the village Irtysh, Teachers College - the village Scherbakty and eight schools - in a wooden building on the shore, brought from thence normal school hostel (now there is a cafe "Aul"). Trains with the wounded people continued to arrive. A week after the first evacuation hospital there arrived  the 2nd evacuation hospital N 8604, which placed in the village of Scherbakty.

Many of the prisoners of war, being outside the country, continued to fight for "barbed wire", contributed to the victory over fascism. And they can justifiably be called a hero  of "invisible front."

One of the heroes of the "invisible front" was our own math teacher and director of the school Chernoyarsky, Gregory S. Ekimov. After serving active duty ,brothers, Gregory and Paul - are both participants in the Finnish War, met June 18, 1941 at home, as reported by relatives in Pavlodar in his last letter, but four days later the war broke out, and the two brothers met it first, while on the western border USSR in the area of the Brest Fortress. Gregory, badly wounded, was taken as a prisoner, and then was sent to a concentration camp, repeatedly ran until he was placed in Buchenwald - a death camp (there no one managed to escape). Ekimov established contact with the camp underground and became one of its leaders.

Underground  was preparing a rebellion of prisoners. In August 1944, at Buchenwald was murdered the leader of the German Communists Ernst Thalmann and after the mourning meeting (he was held in secret), Gregory Ekimov and several activists were rounded up on the denunciation of the Austrian provocateur and after severe torture in prison Weimar, Gregory  Ekimov was destroyed (when he refused to testify Gestapo, he was pushed into a "camera confessions" - a metal box measuring 70 by 140 centimeters: the back wall of which were 2 steam pipes that put the chamber temperature to 50 degrees of heat. Nothing, not having achieved by half-dead prisoner they brought him back to Buchenwald, where Gregory died at the hands of his fellow camp - Michael Levshenkov). At the cost of his life Ekimov saved from destruction by more than 20 thousand prisoners of Buchenwald. The uprising in the camp still held. Prisoners met the Soviet army free, killing  camp guard. But Gregory Ekimov was not  among them. 

Grigoryi Ekimov

Many of our countrymen were in guerrilla groups and connections in Ukraine and Belarus. They attacked on the roads, derailed trains, knocked out German garrisons of villages and fortified points, collected intelligence information to commanders of the Red Army,  prepared in the rear of the success of the upcoming units and formations.

In 65 brigades and detachments on the territory of Belarus there were  one and a half thousand people of Kazakhstan. Among them,  there was our countryman of Bayanaul area, Zhylbek Agadilov.

In the summer of 1941 Zhilbek Agadilov with his wife, Jamal went to the western border. And in June the war started ... Jamal was expecting a child. Zhylbek together with a group of soldiers made its way to the east and soon fell into a partisan detachment. Soon Zhylbek met with Jamal, and on November 27 they had a daughter, Maya. Zhylbek  fought with his family till  the fall of 1943 in Kletnyansky unit, to May 1945. In 2003 in memory of guerrilla war in the home on  171 Gen. Dyusenov, street where the Agadilov family lived, was opened in plaque.

In early 1944, the balance of power had changed radically in favor of the Soviet Union, the Red Army was superior than enemy army. Soviet tanks, aircraft, artillery were much better  than German and outnumbered them. The number of artillery pieces during the war grew 5 times, 15 times in the tanks, planes 5 times. During the war, the Red Army cadres had grown and hardened.

Around the world, it became clear that the military situation had changed dramatically in favor of the Soviet Union that it could on its own, without the help of allies, defeat of Nazi Germany. Only then, after a delay of 2 years, the Anglo-American troops landed in northern France. The second front was opened on June 6, 1944.

First with his company lieutenant Canash  Kamzin from the village Zhulkuduk Aksu district landed on the coast of the enemy. Capturing a tiny foothold, Lieutenant led the soldiers to attack. Division released first, followed by the second trench destroyed the pillboxes and escaped to the southern edge of the village Gura Bykulay. By rapid attack they captured the high ground and hold it until the main forces. In this battle Kamzin personally destroyed 20 enemy soldiers and officers, but he was mortally wounded. For this feat, which cost his life, he was awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

To the west of the city of Siauliai (Lithuania), a powerful battering ram of the enemy broke through our defenses and rushed to the city. The German command feared environment 400's strong force in Kurland, making desperate attempts to break away from our part away from the coast of the Baltic Sea. Fierce fighting was going on day and night. Makhmet Kairbaev from Pavlodar  commanded an artillery battery. In combat reports of his exploits is said: "Lieutenant skillfully maneuvered tools and contrasted the fire of his batteries furious attacks of the enemy. While a break of individual groups of enemy machine gunners to the position he  organized small-gun fire and hand grenades and melee combat.

Being on the heavier sections, by personal example he  fascinated by the exploits of their subordinates. Just for one day its battery repulsed 12 counterattacks enemy tanks and infantry. Battery fire burned 5 "Tigers", 1 armored personnel carrier, 2 cars and destroyed 170 enemy soldiers and officers. Personally Makhmet  Kairbaev killed 20 Nazis. All attacks were repulsed. "

Over feat Makhmet  Kairbaev was awarded the title of the  Hero of the Soviet Union. One of the 76-millimeter guns of his battery is now on display in the Pavlodar regional history museum. Counted: fire this gun glorious artillerymen on the battlefields of Belarus, Latvia and Lithuania had destroyed 10 tanks, 14 guns, 2 cars, destroyed 8 bunkers and 3 observation posts.

In the fierce battles of 1944 the Soviet armed forces dealt a crushing blow to the troops of Nazi Germany and its allies, cleared of invaders entire Soviet territory, and restored the state border of the USSR in its entirety from the Barents to the Black Sea.

Junior Sergeant Ivan Babin, born in the village Zhelezinka repeated immortal feat of Alexander Matrosov, which can be called the top of heroism - consciously accepted death for the sake of the success of the military operation. On September 13, 1944 in the battle for the village Katy (Poland), the Germans put up fierce resistance to the first Tamantsev squadron. In the beginning of the offensive Babin went ahead  to combat formations. Hot battle ensued. Babin from the machine destroyed 17 German soldiers and 2 officers. Unable to withstand the rapid strike, the Germans began to leave the trench and run to the village. They covered their retreat machine gun fire and stopped the offensive squad. Ivan first noticed it. Approaching the gun four meters, it was in front of missed first trimester comrades stood up and shouting: "Forward, comrades, for the Motherland!"  He rushed into the breach enemy bunker, covering her with his body. By the cost of his life, he made it possible for the guards of the 3rd Squadron performed  a combat mission. He was posthumously awarded the title of the Hero of the Soviet Union.

The Pilot Spartak Makovsky from Pavlodar,  in a dogfight right plane struck the plane of  Messerschmitt. And the enemy plane disintegrated in the air. On another occasion, when his friend made an emergency landing in enemy territory, Spartak  Makovsky, ignoring the Germans ran up, put his car in the open field, took the victim to his plane and gone off.

In the night from 12 to 13 April 1944 the first battalion of 429 th Infantry Regiment, 52nd Infantry Division under heavy mortar and artillery fire crossed the Dniester near the village Vychek Tiraspol region of Moldova.

On October 16, 1944, our troops, to crack the defense of the Nazis, entered the territory of East Prussia, took the town of Goldap. The Nazis sought in that whatever was to return back Gołdap. Ten days were evenly matched fights. When the situation became critical, and  there was the threat of environment, the defenders of the city decided to retreat. Departure had to cover the 611 th Infantry Regiment, but he turned out to be a day in the encirclement.

By nightfall, the regimental headquarters began to break. There is also a bearer Sergeant Andrei Elgin (from the village Kachiry) belted a cloth banner of the regiment. He first came the swamp, then through the woods, ran into a small hill. He noticed a group of enemy soldiers, sitting in a trench. Elgin threw a grenade, but falling, felt a sharp pain in his chest. Suddenly illuminate rocket found him.  Previously, the Germans were near him. Elgin threw a grenade at them and took the barrel of the machine. Eight Nazis dropped dead. Summoning forces the soldier sat up and took a few steps. But then he fell from enemy bullets ... Banner Regiment - a shrine for the loss which disbanded military unit - were rescued and the body of the Hero honorably interred.

The Soviet Army irresistibly moved forward. The war was coming to the capital of Nazi Germany - Berlin. On April 16 the great battle for Berlin began. One of the first in the city Spandau - Berlin suburb burst Ivan Illarionovitch Krivenko tank, a native of the village of Aksu district Markovka. In the city park  there was disbanded Nazi garrison, crushed in more than forty cars and ten guns. On the night before the final attack on Berlin German tanks blocked the exit at Spandau, set fire to an unequal fight "Panther", and the trunk of the mighty "Tiger" best shot bent into an arc.

The whole world knows the history of the fall of Berlin. The Germans defended here fanaticism doomed. Bloody battles were for each quarter, each house, each floor. The troops advanced, often through walls. In the street battles the Hero of the Soviet Union Captain Vasily Stepanenko from the village Timothy of Kachiry area, the Holders Order of Glory Paul Panteleevich Bolbot from Pavlodar fought.

Only in the morning of May 2 fighting died down, the surviving fascists threw white flags - signs of surrender.

On May 8, 1944 the German High Command was forced to cease resistance and sign an unconditional surrender of the German armed forces.

To commemorate the victory in the Great Patriotic War on May 9, it was announced the day of national celebration, Victory Day.

On May 9, 1945  Pavlodar over the buildings of enterprises and institutions hoisted flags and banners. At 9 o'clock in the morning citizens walked through the streets with banners columns, portraits and slogans. All the people gathered for a rally in Pervomajskaya area.

On June 24, 1945  on the Red Square in Moscow there was  a historic Victory Parade.

In honor of the memory of the victims of Pavlodar during World War II  on May 9, 1975 in Pervomaisk   park obelisk of Fame was opened.

Mahmet Kairbaev Ivan Babin Spartak Makovskii Andrey Elgin
 
Ivan Krivenko Vasilyi Stepanenko Kanash Kamzin  


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